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OSCAR was a 5th Framwork research program which focused on occupational stress.


Occupational stress features highly in both the hospital and community-based mental health workforce, particularly with respect to violent severely mentally ill clients. This project aimed to address the problem of occupational stress by producing European comparative baseline data, and by developing and evaluating trans– European training packages, which include standardised and effective stress reduction and risk assessment procedures. Objectives were to evaluate on a European, transnational basis levels of occupational stress and burnout, to examine the aetological factors which precipitate the occurrence of violent behaviour, to examine the efficacy of risk management strategies, and to develop and evaluate effective stress reduction training packages. The method was a quasi-experimental research study. Outputs included a European database, standardised and evaluated risk assessment and stress reduction training packages.

OSCAR Publications

Ryan P, Hill R, Anczewska M, Hardy P, Kurek A, Nielson K, Turner C; Oscar Group. “Team -based  occupational  stress  reduction: a European overview from the perspective of the OSCAR Project.” International review of psychiatry 2005 [

Ryan P, Hill R, Anczewska M, Turner C, & Hardy P (2005) „The Management of Occupational Stress in European Mental Health Services” International Review of Psychiatry 13 39-49 

Robert G Hill, Peter Ryan, Polly Hardy, Marta Anczewska, Anna Kurek, Ian Dawson, Heli Laijarvi, Katia Nielson, Klaus Nybourg, Iliana Rokku and Colette Turner. “Situational levels of burnout among staff in six European inpatient and community mental health teams.” The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice. 2006 Vol 1, No 1, Pages 12‐21 

Ryan P, Hill R, Anczewska M, Hardy P, Dawson I,   “Comparative Levels of Burnout in European Inpatient and Community Mental Health Teams” Journal of Mental Health education training and Practice 2006 Vol 1 pp136‐149 

Knut W. Sørgaard, Peter Ryan, Robert Hill, Ian Dawson and the OSCAR group. “Sources of stress and burnout in acute psychiatric care: inpatient vs. community staff.” Journal of Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2007  Vol 42, No 10, Pages 794‐802 [

Ryan, Peter; Anczewska, Marta; Laijarvi, Heli; Czabala, Czeslaw; Hill, Robert; Kurek, Anna. “Demographic and situational variations in levels of burnout in European mental health services: a comparative study.” Diversity in Health and Social Care, Volume 4, Number 2, June 2007 , pp. 101112(12) [ 2008 2009 2010 ] 

Robert G. Hill, Catherine I. Atnas, Peter Ryan, Kirsty Ashby, & Julie Winnington. “Whole team training to reduce burn‐out amongst staff on an in‐patient alcohol ward.” Journal of substance use. 2010, Vol. 15, No. 1, Pages 42‐50 

Sørgaard Knut, Ryan Peter & Dawson Ian. ”Qualified and unqualified (N‐R C) mental health nursing staff ‐  minor differences in sources of stress and burnout. A European multi‐centre study.” BMC Health Services Research 2010, 10:163 

Last updated: 08.12.2022

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